The psychodynamic theory in psychology is an approach Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and his successive supporters invoked to describe the roots of human behavior. The psychodynamic strategy covers all psychological theories that view the health of individuals as a result of conscious and unconscious influences interacting between and within personality structures.
Although Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic approach was the genesis of psychodynamic theory, the psychodynamic perspective as a whole encompasses all theories based on his concepts, including those of Erik Erikson, Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler. The terms psychodynamic theory and psychoanalysis are often mixed up. Keep in mind that Freud’s concepts were psychoanalytic, whereas the word ‘psychodynamic’ relates to both his concepts and those of his adherents. Freud’s psychoanalytic approach is both a therapy and theory.
Sigmund Freud (1890-1930) formulated a series of theories that provided the backbone of the psychodynamic approach. His concepts are clinically deduced – i.e., premised on what his clients revealed to him during their treatment. The psychodynamic practitioner would generally be managing the patient for anxiety or depression-related disorders. The unconscious mind incorporates cognitive processes that are unreachable to conscious experience but that impact decisions, emotions, or behavior (Wilson, 2002).
The unconscious mind, as per Freud (1915), drives human behavior. Like that of an iceberg, the most crucial function of the mind is the aspect you cannot see. Our emotions, intentions, and judgments are certainly strongly impacted by our personal past encounters and sequestered in the unconscious mind. Our emotional responses as adults (which include psychological issues) are centered in our childhood experiences:
According to psychodynamic theory, childhood events shape our adult personalities. Childhood trauma can linger in the unconscious and induce adult issues. Problems in childhood structure personality by modifying the drives (particularly in psychosexual growth). Even accidental verbal slips have a cause (unconscious). So all actions are determined. Psychodynamic theory is objectivist, believing that our actions are entirely dictated by unconscious forces.
Parapraxes, also widely recognized as Freudian slips or tongue slips, are unconscious feelings and thoughts that transfer to the conscious mind. We disclose our true feelings by accidentally expressing something. Freud felt that there were no coincidences and that every conduct (even slips of the tongue) was meaningful (i.e., all behavior is determined). Personality is divided into three parts: id, ego, and super-ego.
A fundamental and instinctual psychological trait is the id. It includes the sex (life) drive – Eros (that includes the libido) as well as the aggressive (death) impulse – Thanatos. We grow up to be mediators between our implausible id and our external reality. It is the personality’s decision-making facet. The superego contains societal norms and ideals taught from parents and others. The superego and id are constantly at odds with the conscious mind (the ego). This clash causes anxiety, wherein the ego can handle by using defense mechanisms.
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