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Did you know that up to 5% of the world’s population could have an antisocial personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder is a complex and challenging condition that can have a profound impact on an individual’s life and those around them. Studies show that up to 80% of individuals with an antisocial personality disorder will experience legal problems at some point in their lives.

Antisocial personality disorder is four times more common in men than in women, according to research. Studies show that up to 80% of individuals with an antisocial personality disorder will experience legal problems at some point in their lives. While it’s often associated with criminal behavior, antisocial personality disorder can manifest in a variety of ways, from charming and manipulative to aggressive and impulsive. Shockingly, around 75% of individuals with an antisocial personality disorder will never seek treatment for their condition. 

Despite the challenges of treating antisocial personality disorder, a combination of therapies and interventions can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Have you ever heard of someone being called “antisocial”? It’s a term that’s often used to describe someone shy or introverted, but in the world of psychology, it has a very different meaning. Antisocial personality is a specific personality type in which a person’s ability to form relationships and healthily interact with others is diminished.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others and a tendency to violate social norms and laws [1]. Individuals with ASPD may engage in behaviors such as lying, manipulation, aggression, and theft without any sense of guilt or remorse. 

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Here we will explore the definition, classification, types, biological mechanisms, and risk factors associated with this disorder.

Definition And Classification

ASPD is classified as a personality disorder. It is a pervasive and enduring pattern of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that deviate from cultural expectations and causes significant distress or impairment [2]. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), the criteria for diagnosing ASPD include a history of conduct disorder before the age of 15, a pattern of disregard for the rights of others since the age of 15, and the presence of at least three of the following traits: impulsivity, aggression, deceitfulness, irresponsibility, recklessness, and a lack of remorse [2].

Types Of ASPD

ASPD is commonly divided into primary and secondary subtypes [3]. Primary ASPD refers to individuals who display the core features of the disorder, such as a lack of empathy and remorse, without any underlying psychiatric or neurological conditions. Secondary ASPD, on the other hand, refers to individuals who develop the disorder as a result of other conditions, such as substance abuse or brain injury [3].

Science Behind ASPD: Biological Mechanisms

The biological mechanism of ASPD is complex and not fully understood. Some research suggests that abnormalities in the structure and function of certain brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, may contribute to the development of ASPD [4]. Other studies have identified genetic factors that may increase the risk of developing the disorder, although the exact genes involved have not been identified [4].

Risk Factors for Developing ASPD

Several risk factors have been identified for ASPD. One of the most significant risk factors is a history of conduct disorder in childhood [1]. Other risk factors include:

However, it is important to note that not all individuals with these risk factors will develop ASPD, and some individuals without any of these risk factors may still develop the disorder.

Individuals with ASPD often engage in behavior that is harmful to themselves and others, including criminal acts, substance abuse, and impulsive decision-making. Here we will discuss the ten most common symptoms and antisocial personality disorder traits, along with a brief description of each.

Deceitfulness: Individuals with ASPD often lie, con, and manipulate others for personal gain [3]. They may engage in fraudulent behavior, such as forgery, identity theft, or embezzlement.

Impulsivity: People with ASPD often act impulsively, without considering the consequences of their actions. This can lead to risky behavior, such as drug abuse, gambling, or reckless driving [2].

Aggressiveness: Individuals with ASPD may engage in physical fights or assaults, and may exhibit a pattern of intimidating or bullying behavior [5]. They may also engage in cruelty to animals or the destruction of property.

Irresponsibility: People with ASPD often fail to fulfill obligations, such as paying bills, keeping a job, or caring for their families [2]. They may also engage in reckless behavior, such as unprotected sex, without considering the consequences.

Lack of remorse: Individuals with ASPD may show a lack of empathy or remorse for their actions, even when they have caused harm to others [6]. They may rationalize their behavior or blame others for their actions.

Impaired moral judgment: People with ASPD may have difficulty distinguishing between right and wrong. They may engage in behavior that is unethical, immoral, or illegal [3].

Substance abuse: Individuals with ASPD often abuse drugs or alcohol, exacerbating their symptoms and increasing their risk of engaging in criminal behavior [5]. They may also engage in other risky behaviors, such as driving under the influence or stealing to support their addiction.

Reckless disregard for safety: People with ASPD may engage in behavior that puts themselves or others in danger, such as driving while intoxicated, participating in high-risk sports, or engaging in criminal activity [2].

Failure to plan: Individuals with ASPD may fail to plan or set goals for themselves [3]. They may live in the moment, without considering the consequences of their actions.

Chronic boredom: People with ASPD may feel chronically bored and seek out new thrills or stimulation to alleviate their boredom [7]. This can lead to impulsive behavior, such as substance abuse or criminal activity.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a complex condition, and researchers are still working to identify its underlying causes. However, several factors are thought to contribute to the development of this disorder.

Genetics and Biology

ASPD is believed to have a significant genetic component [2]. Studies have shown that people with a family history of ASPD are at a higher risk of developing the disorder themselves. The condition may also be linked to an individual’s brain structure and functioning. Research suggests that certain areas of the brain that are responsible for emotional regulation, impulse control, and decision-making may be less active in people with ASPD [5].

Childhood Trauma

Trauma during childhood, such as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, neglect, or living in a dysfunctional family, has been linked to the development of ASPD [3]. Children who experience trauma are more likely to develop behavioral problems, including aggression, impulsivity, and conduct disorder. These behavioral patterns can persist into adulthood and contribute to the development of ASPD.


Environmental factors such as poverty, social isolation, and exposure to violence can also contribute to the development of ASPD [8]. Children who grow up in unstable environments are more likely to develop behavioral problems that can lead to the development of the disorder. In addition, individuals who have a history of substance abuse are also more likely to develop ASPD.

Brain Abnormalities

Research suggests that there may be structural and functional abnormalities in the brains of people with ASPD [5]. Studies have shown that individuals with the disorder have reduced gray matter in certain areas of the brain that are responsible for regulating emotions, processing social information, and decision-making. In addition, people with ASPD have been found to have reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain responsible for planning and decision-making.

Social Learning

Another possible cause of ASPD is social learning. This theory suggests that people with the disorder learn deviant behavior through exposure to negative role models, such as parents or peers who engage in criminal activities [7]. This exposure can lead to the development of antisocial behavior patterns, which can contribute to the development of ASPD.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a complex mental health condition that poses significant challenges for effective treatment. There is no known cure for this disorder, but a range of treatment options can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Here are five treatment options for Antisocial Personality Disorder:


Psychotherapy or talk therapy is a common treatment for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Psychotherapies like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns, improve their emotional regulation, and learn healthy coping strategies. Other psychotherapy modalities like psychodynamic therapy, group therapy, and family therapy may also be effective in managing symptoms of this disorder [2, 5].


Medication is not a primary treatment for Antisocial Personality Disorder, but it may be prescribed for co-existing conditions like depression, anxiety, or impulsivity. Medications like antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers can help alleviate some of the symptoms of co-existing conditions that can exacerbate ASPD [5, 8].

Anger Management

People with ASPD often struggle with intense anger and impulsivity, which can lead to aggressive or violent behavior. Anger management therapy can help individuals learn how to identify their triggers, regulate their emotions, and develop healthy coping strategies to manage their anger [5, 10].

Substance Abuse Treatment 

Substance abuse is common among people with ASPD, and it can worsen the symptoms of the disorder. Substance abuse treatment programs can help individuals detox, manage withdrawal symptoms, and develop coping strategies to stay sober [2, 5].

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

DBT is a form of psychotherapy that combines elements of CBT with mindfulness techniques. It is often used to treat borderline personality disorder, but it has also shown promise in treating ASPD. DBT can help individuals develop skills in emotional regulation, distress tolerance, interpersonal effectiveness, and mindfulness [5, 10].

While these treatments can help individuals manage their symptoms, it is important to note that many people with ASPD may not seek treatment voluntarily. People with ASPD may not see a problem with their behavior or may feel that seeking help is a sign of weakness. Court-ordered treatment, including therapy, may be an option in some cases.

It is also important to note that there is no single treatment that works for everyone with ASPD, and the effectiveness of treatment can vary depending on the severity of the symptoms and the individual’s willingness to participate in therapy. Additionally, non-traditional treatments like equine therapy, art therapy, or wilderness therapy may also be helpful for some individuals with ASPD, but more research is needed to evaluate their effectiveness.

Gaining the trust of an antisocial person can be challenging, as they tend to have a general mistrust of others and a disregard for social norms and rules. However, building a rapport with an antisocial person is crucial for their treatment and overall well-being. Here are 10 steps to gain an antisocial person’s trust.

Be Patient and Consistent: Building trust takes time, so it is essential to be patient and consistent in your interactions with the person. Be reliable and consistent in your communication and show that you are trustworthy.

Be Genuine and Honest: Antisocial individuals tend to be good at detecting dishonesty or insincerity, so it is important to be genuine and honest with them. Avoid lying or making promises that you cannot keep.

Respect Boundaries: It is crucial to respect the boundaries of the person, especially as they may be reluctant to engage in therapy or treatment. Avoid pushing them too hard or too fast, and instead, allow them to set the pace.

Show Empathy: While antisocial individuals may struggle with empathy, it is still essential to show empathy towards them. Try to understand their perspective and feelings, and show that you care.

Use Positive Reinforcement: Positive reinforcement is a technique that can be useful when trying to gain the trust of an antisocial person. Reward positive behaviors and actions and avoid punishment.

Use Humor: Using humor can help to lighten the mood and build a rapport with the person. However, it is important to avoid using humor that could be seen as insulting or belittling.

Use Clear Communication: Communication can be challenging with an antisocial person, so it is essential to be clear and direct. Avoid using sarcasm or indirect language.

Find Common Ground: Finding common ground with the person can help to build a connection and trust. Look for shared interests or experiences.

Be Non-Judgmental: Avoid being judgmental or critical of the person. Instead, show acceptance and understanding of their experiences and behavior.

Respect Autonomy: While gaining trust and building rapport is important, it is also important to respect the autonomy of the person. Avoid making decisions for them or taking control of their treatment.

Experts in the field emphasize the complexity of this mental health condition, requiring a comprehensive approach to treatment. While there is no single cure for ASPD, it is treatable, and early intervention is key to reducing the severity of the symptoms.

It is important to understand that treatment involves both traditional and non-traditional methods. Therapy and medication can be effective in treating some of the symptoms associated with ASPD, but patients also benefit from a range of other interventions such as social skills training, family therapy, and lifestyle changes.

It is crucial for those living with ASPD to seek professional help and receive a proper diagnosis. The earlier the diagnosis, the better the chances of successful treatment. With the right support and approach, people with ASPD can learn to manage their symptoms, build meaningful relationships, and live fulfilling lives.

Finally, it is essential to acknowledge that living with ASPD can be challenging for both the individual and their loved ones. If you suspect that someone you care about has ASPD, don’t hesitate to seek professional help to develop a personalized treatment plan that meets their specific needs.

  1. MedlinePlus. Antisocial personality disorder.
  2. Mayo Clinic. Antisocial personality disorder.
  3. NHS. Antisocial personality disorder.
  4. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Antisocial personality disorder.
  5. Cleveland Clinic. Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved from
  6. Wikipedia. Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved from
  7. The epidemiology of antisocial personality disorder.
  8. Web MD. Antisocial Personality Disorder.
  9. Mental Health. Antisocial Personality Disorder.
  10. Very Well Mind. What Is Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)?


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